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Daily maintenance of Excavators


Excavator is the main construction machinery in the earthwork engineering, which is widely used in construction, road building, Water Conservancy, open-pit Mining and national Defense engineering. If the excavator is not timely maintenance may appear a variety of faults, I based on their own practical experience, the common fault of the excavator to do the following analysis, for reference only.

1 excavator cannot start or start difficulty

1.1 Electrical system failure

1.1.1 battery is insufficient, at this time should be in time to charge the battery, check the battery liquid level, timely replenishment of electrolyte to the specified height. If the battery aging is found to be bad, should replace the battery, pay attention to the day-to-day maintenance of the battery, do not let the battery often in a state of loss.

1.1.2 Boot machine failure repair or replacement of the start-up.

1.1.3 generators fail to repair or replace generators.

1.1.4 Line fault check line and repair.

1.2 Engine oil Circuit failure

1.2.1 Low pressure oil circuit air resistance

The fuel oil is sent to the high-pressure pump by the oil tank through the low-pressure circuit under the suction of the oil pump or fuel injection pumps. If the low pressure oil circuit is not tight, or the fuel tank is too low, and the vehicle tilt parking and driving, the air will take the opportunity to enter the circuit; If the temperature is high, the fuel evaporation, will also be in the low-pressure oil circuit formation of gas resistance, resulting in engine instability, automatic flameout or engine can

1.2.2 Oil circuit Jam

The common parts of the oil circuit plugging are the suction pipe, filter net, diesel filter, gas tank cover vent, etc. The main problem that causes the blockage of the oil circuit is the injection of substandard diesel or the inclusion of impurities in the refueling process. The key to prevention is to ensure that diesel clean and oil circuit seals, the regular maintenance of the oil circuit, to strengthen the cleaning and maintenance of diesel filters, timely cleaning or replacement of filter, according to operating environment conditions in a timely manner to the tank cleaning, thoroughly remove the oil tank bottom of the sludge and moisture.

1.2.3 Failure of fuel injection pump

The injection pump plunger and the oil delivery valve have serious wear and tear, which causes the engine start-up difficulty. At this point should be timely replacement of plunger and oil valve coupling.

2 Excavator Work powerless

2.1 The engine power is enough, the operation is normal, but the excavator work speed is slow, digs feebly.

2.1.1 Excavator hydraulic pump for variable plunger pump, after a certain period of time, the internal parts of the pump will inevitably wear, resulting in internal leakage, the parameters of the data uncoordinated, resulting in insufficient flow, high oil temperature, slow speed, can not establish high pressure, so slow motion weak. For this kind of problem, the hydraulic pump should be unloaded to measure the data, confirm the problem, replace the spare parts which can not be used, or repair the spare parts, the Colonel test rig after reassembly, match the parameters of each loop (pressure, flow, power and variable, etc.).

2.1.2 Excavator An important hydraulic components-multi-channel distribution valve, above the main safety valve, two times valve, overflow valve, fill valve and so on. If the pressure set by these valves does not reach the standard pressure, it will lead to excavation weakness. In addition, if the valve stem and valve hole between because of wear and clearance is too large, stem back position is not complete, the commutation is not in place, then a large number of internal leakage, resulting in insufficient flow, slow speed. This kind of problem, should remove the multi-channel allocation valve, send to the test bench to debug, reset all the pressure of the valve to standard pressure, eliminate the gap between stem and valve hole.

2.1.3 Imported excavator hydraulic pumps are equipped with a pilot gear pump, this pump is mainly involved in the hydraulic pump variables and as the pilot oil open multi-channel distribution valve stem to make its reversing. If the gear pump is too worn to build up a certain pressure or the relief valve on the gear pump can not be set up to a certain pressure, will lead to the hydraulic pump is always in a low flow state, the stem can not be completely reversed, resulting in insufficient flow, slow movement, insufficient pressure, excavation powerless. For this type of problem, only need to change the pilot gear pump or reset the pilot safety valve can be.

2.2 Cold machine all normal, hot machine slow movement, digging powerless. This problem indicates that the internal parts of the hydraulic pump are badly worn, and it is necessary to replace the easily damaged parts in the pump and to reassemble and debug the test bench.

The other main reason for the slow failure of the machine is the hydraulic oil deterioration, so we should pay attention to monitor the hydraulic oil (viscosity, fluidity and have no suspended material, etc.), and replace the hydraulic oil in time, which can greatly avoid the occurrence of such faults.

3 Excavator Running deviation

3.1 Hydraulic Pump failure

Under normal circumstances, excavators are using dual-pump, running on the eccentric often a pump failure, the simplest way to judge the method is: the hydraulic pump two high-pressure out of the tubing, if the original slow change faster, the original fast slow, prove that there is a pump failure. Elimination Method: Remove the hydraulic pump, replace the damaged parts, and then to the test bench debugging can.

3.2 Walking motor safety valve leaking oil

The leakage of the safety valve will cause the pressure in the system is too low, so that the speed of the driving motor is not enough, so the running deviation appears. The elimination method is: the replacement of the damaged walking motor safety valve, judgement can be left and right walking motor safely exchange, see if the reverse walk when deflection.

3.3 Mining machines running sideways on one side

If the spring of the main valve is soft or broken, or the spool is jammed, it may cause the oil pressure to decrease, and the running deviation appears. Check to measure the pressure of the main valve circuit, the normal value is the 5MPA. If the main valve of the walk is damaged, it should be replaced or repaired.

Through the above analysis, we can see that 80% of the excavator failures are caused by inadequate maintenance or improper operation, therefore, should do a good job in the maintenance of excavators, while improving the technical level of the operator, reduce the occurrence of fault, to ensure the smooth progress of construction.

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